Behruz Mofidi Shirazi

Fp Ap ok Do DD DvA rW

ϵ p qC lz PFDR Fp Ap ,Clh DJ phA

kߡ oDzA pG Clh koi Pvk DJ

pDd Dq ioDN C pOorF

lܡ w vC qC Dp pDv MDG ok aA PvC pnN F q
.koCl "wN" Clh k DN Fp Ap DF DGNoC b

 

19 kl DJ pF Ap rCPz Do rW

DF kD ,pW 13 Dv ,Do oDG D qC oDG Hz 27 ok ,pG Clh PvCiF
ϷC ľC F DOzp DF Cp ul co vCF Clh
pGػJ phA le x ,k 610
pNok F ok ul lWw qC Co C DA .lOip p DoDOv Ddok ,lz kpF
DJ Clh .q p qC Dv 25 kld D ok .lkpF DF F DC lWw ,D lWv
A ll Co Clh Ddok le lz kr le F Du k qClC F DN lA
DDpe DN .kCk oCp le H ok Co Fp Ap d Clh ,ϷC ľC ok Co Clh
DOvk DF CpA C lCi le CpF Co Fp Ap pGV Dv 23 ߬ ok ClF .kF oCppF
Dlw ,(27:59) le pF v ,le ,Clh pGػJ phA Pdo qC lF .Pz kh
ov phA F A k ,lDvpF pk Doߡ F CpA DN l wo Ap o qC lOvCi
50 V C Dok ok 첵 PDV C pDiF ,lkp DC Ap F le cl ok Ap 9
C CpF Dh phDF C DN Ppok CpD Clh F Dlz wN D ok Dv
WOok .llCqv Co le h Pvk DF lz Oz Ap ,lDFCiF Co V Clpv
Dv 1400 C DN .llD pF F ,kF kp qD le pF Clh ФC Fp Ap qC Dk kp
DoDN C ok Do D D vF lF .PvC Do ϵ okD Dq ok ,lF
.kp qDv DJ DC MDA DkpGOvk qC Co Fp Ap ,lk d

VpN ,l d Co h kDzo pOk wC Ap qC 1 oDz ب Pw C ok)
(DpA ,xWA u 1995
.qCpz l qpF


{74:35} MCrW pOorF qC


PD pF Pvk Oz EDO b ok ,koCk kV Ap ok pF llJ
kClN Dov :Do PvC GpN CoCk Ap pDܵ qC p .kߡ
MD kClN ,pd kClN ,MD ,DA oDz kClN MDA ,DA oDz
kV l ,MD F Oz qp ,C DvC CC kClN ,kCDh
Ap pk Cߵ qC oDwF MD F ok pd F lص pN D
Ap Do Owv .lOw Dh GpN CoCk ,NDOe qC pF
Dz Ap Do DOhDv (2) ,Do DC (1) :koCk GV k
pN pOZ ,DV Do l C pDiF .PvC MDA Dov oDz
.kߡ oDzA ϤDF ,Ap GpN DOhDv D O ok

 

kDv Dd

.l pN ǡ oDwF DN kDv oDwF qC Ap Do l ,Ap kh lD
.kp vopF Co DA CO Dv b lF PvC NClD kDv Dd
vopF .PvC Po FD pNKD D EDwd zD F laJ Dd
OzCk pDiF PvC lءCh DC ,koCl UDOdC Cv b F pq Dd
:koCk oDzC ϤC Fp O F DC lzDF

.PvC pd 19 Dz [C wF] F p ,(1:1) A C .1
19*6=114 kߡ PvC ov 114 CoCk Ap .2
oDz A 6234} .334*19 kߡ PvC 6346 Ap ok MDA W .3
kߡ PvC l oCn oDz (C wF) A PvC lz oCn
.19 kߡ 6+3+4+6 l VN {6234+112=6346
9 ov ok A qp PG kVDF ,PvC lz oCpN GNp 114 C wF .4
.6*19 = 114 (PvC lz oCpN oDF k 27 ov ok)
19 Dk ,27 ov ok DC C wF DN 9 ov ok C wF PG qC .5
.PvC ov
342= (9+10+11+12+....+26+27) 27 DN 9 qC Dov oDz W .6
.18*19 D
wF k F MD W DF PvC Dw a (342) W C .7
.18*19=342 ,27 ov C
.PvC 19 Dz (96:1-5) lz d C p MDA C .8
.4*19 PvC pd 76 CoCk ,C 19 d C C .9
.PvC A 19 CoCk ,PvC ov C Dq HNpN p qC 96 ov .10
.PvC kq Ap phA qC ,Dq HNpN p qC ov C C .11
.16*19 kߡ 304 ,PvC Fp pd 304 Dz 96 ov .12
.PvC 19 Dz (110 ov) lz kDOvp ov phA .13
.PvC pd 19 Dz (110:1) lz d ov phA qC A C .14
Oi (Ap Z DC) [Ap CoDJ] 14 ,Fp Oi pd 14 .15
.loCk oCp ov 29 ClOFC ok ll ǡN Co (2:1 qC , . .C lD)
.3*19 D 57=29+14+14 kߡ kClC C W
: kߡ PvC lA DA ok [Ap DCoDJ] Cov 29 W .16
D 836 kߡ (DCoDJ W 14) 14+822 ,2+3+7+...+ 50 + 68 = 822
.44*19
ov 38 ,(68) oCk CoDJ ov phA (2) oCk CoDJ ov C F .17
.38*19 koCk kV CoDJ lF
lF oCk CoDJ W 19 oCk CoDJ Dov phA C F .18
.koCk kV CoDJ
,10,9 ,8 ,7 ,6 ,5 ,4 ,3 ,2 ,1 : PvC lz oCpN Ap ok Oi kl 30 .19
,2000 ,1000 ,300 ,200 ,100 ,99 ,80 ,70 ,60 ,50 ,40 ,30 ,20 ,19 ,12 ,11
: kߡ 162146 kߡ kClC C W .100000 ,50000 ,5000 ,3000
.8534*19
.kDv MCrW qC kF Ckp oDwF h C

Do DC

PD pk EDO ok rp koCk pFok pF Dh llJ Ap
DC) [Ap DCoDJ] vC F Oi W 14 DF ov 29 .kߡ
lD ,lO@w pd XJDN Dz Clp lߡ qDA (Ap i
, ,. . . .@ . ,. . . .C ,. .u . ,.o . . .C ,.o . .C ,. . .C
W C ok Fp DGC pd ܷ ,pd 14 .... ,.u . , ,
.(15:87.CkCk Co 첵 Ap PV P N F D) .PvC Oo oDF D
DJ kF lz d p 14 Ml F C p qC Ap DCoDJ PC
MDGRC ܷ ,kh rW oDFok 10:20 25:4,6 MDAok Ap .kF lD
,G qC lz N Dq CpF DN kF lz ol l ,C lw
: lDF DJ

qC lA" ,F "?lD C pF yoDkopJ p qC CrW CpZ" ,l DA
(10:20) ".Ow pO Dz DF ,lzDF pO xJ ,? PvC Clh A
зV pk kp DF C PvC ok C" ,lO llz pD Dw
PvC l DDwC" lO Cpk .ok lCO p DA ".kp
w p qC C ,F ".PvC lz Ok qo DGz C CpF ;PvC Oz C
;PvC l ߿ C .lCl Co q DDvA qCo PvC lz kDOvp
(25:4-6) DFp

(15:87) .Ckp D Co 첵 Ap ,PV P N F D

DAp ok (74:30) A a DF A VpN F PvC lءCh)
(.lD VN k 1990 Dv qC G ,voD F lz VpN

,DA qC yDG غ ,kp D Cpk (vo) F aA pF MkDwd
(15:88) .oA DJ D CpF Co kh pJ DF

q CrVC qC oA kVF kV DA CpF D Dq ok
(27:82) .loCl D MDA F kp l ԵC ,PvC lz OhDv
19=2+7+8+2
ϵ okD Do ,sDN p C ok .PvC pNOKD kV C)
(.loCk oDpv pNOKD DF Dk kp ,PvC

: l q DDvA qCo F DCk Clh ,[DJ qCo] ,74 ov ok


.koCk oCp kq (Ap) A o pF .30

kp N Co DA oDz D ,kCk oCp V DDG Co DOzp D .31
lDO kF lz D EDO DA F Co Dw DN .kqDv Ep Co CpD DN
F Dw H qC Co z p DN .l pN Co D DC DN .kqDv
H ok Co Dw DN ,koCkpF D o߮ ,kF lz D EDO DA
qC Clh o߲] ,P lCh DA ;l Cvo Co CpD koCk kV z DA
,l Cp ,kz Cp lCiF Co x p aC Clh [?kF Z DS C
CqDFpv F xa .l PCl ,kz PCl lCiF Co x p
.kp CpF PvC pnN C .C rWF ,Pw DA MoDkopJ

: koi w Clh xKv


.D F ,Dw .32
.kon Gz F .33
.lhol eG F .34
.PvC orF DD qC C .35
.PpF F oCl .36
.ph~DN D ,lFD lN lCi Dz D ok Dw CpF .37

: l D F kDwF d Clh "DJ qCo" ,74 ov ok


"PvC Pw FD 19 kl pF Fp Ap "

 

: l yCVpN ok h kDzo pOk o߮D

PD pF Pvk Oz EDO b ok ,koCk kV Ap ok pF llJ
kClN Dov :Do PvC GpN CoCk Ap pDܵ qC p .kߡ
MD kClN ,pd kClN ,MD ,DA oDz kClN MDA ,DA oDz
kV l ,MD F Oz qp ,C DvC CC kClN ,kCDh
Ap pk Cߵ qC oDwF MD F ok pd F lص pN D
Ap Do Owv .lOw Dh GpN CoCk ,NDOe qC pF
Dz Ap Do DOhDv (2) ,Do DC (1) :koCk GV k
pN pOZ ,DV Do l C pDiF .PvC MDA Dov oDz
.kߡ oDzA ϤDF ,Ap GpN DOhDv D O ok

 

DDov Ap DCoDJ Pvp
Ap CoDJ
ov vC
ov
oDz
. . .C
kD Dv
2
1
. . .C
Cpص A
3
2
. . . .C
CpC
7
3
.o . .C
x
10
4
.o . .C
k
11
5
.o . .C
v
12
6
.o . . .C
lo
13
7
.o . .C
CpFC
14
8
.o . .C
pWd qpv
15
9
. . . .@ .
p
19
10
.@ .
.@ .
20
11
. .u .
Cpz
26
12
.u .
Zo
27
13
.u .
joDN
28
14
. . .C
MGܵ
29
15
. . .C
Do
30
16
. . .C
D
31
17
. . .C
lWv
32
18
.u .
.u .
36
19
38
20
. .c
l߿
40
21
. .c
Х
41
22
. .u . ,. .c
Moߡ
42
23
. .c
MWN
43
24
. .c
kk
44
25
. .c
kq Cq
45
26
. .c
z DKN
46
27
50
28
68
29


ǡN ,19 kl DJ pF Co Ap Do rW qC Pw Ap DCoDJ
.ll

.lk oD Co rp N C D h kDzo pOk Cl DF Ap Do l rW Z lz CpF

ioDN q

 

ok ,z ϵ ok lz OhDz lءCk ,h kDzo pOk 1968 Dv ok
ok kV wC DFq F Ap DVpN kF DGOzC pDiF ,DpA
DVpN .l VpN wC F Fp qC Co Ap kp إN ,DpA
C VpN .PzCl pFok Co Clh EDO phA d DJ Dq A DN Ap
Ap k ov .PD DDJ qo lZ Ml ok [l] eNDC ov ,Ap ov
pOk Z .kߡ [. . .C] pd DF A A C ,[kD Dv] D pGC
Z DC D Ap i DC) Ap oCkCoDJ pd C D h
kD ,lDWC ߮F Dv oDZ A C VpN Cn ,PwCl Co (Ap
pvDN DFDO .Ap Do 첵 rW ,C [qCo] lz oDzA DF lz
PC D xa] lkF lvo WO C F CoA DNC F Ap
PvCiF ,WOok [.lCl Co pk CoDJ p D ,. . .C Ap DCoDJ
,lwF kF vpOvk ok pNKD ok Co Ap DN Pp إN C ,Clh
CFCo Ap DCoDJ C D ok DA lGF ,l vopF CpA O
h vF kp kDOvC pNKD qC C . D koCk kV Do p qC
.kF ХO 첵 pNKD F ݿN
qC [] lD pd N Ap DCoDJ Pp إN MDp DeOC CpF
vopF Co 68 ov qC () [] ,38 ,19 ,7 ov qC [] ,50 42 ov
qp DGC PC :Ap rW FDO C ok o߮D .l
Dz qC oDwF ,PvC lz kCk D (1973 Dv ,vC MClN)
.kF lz VC Pwz DF qCo C kp oDzA CpF G
DpA leO MDC ok z Ozo ok lz OhDz lءCk h pOk)
,Clh vo ,Clh Dzk Pvk F 1990 Dv Cs 31 qo ok C .kF
(.lvo MkDz F Clh rW

[] Ap CoDJ

42 ,loCk [] CoDJ Dov DN kCk D pNKD MDԬC
kF oDzC C C .57 57 ,lOw [] Dw kClN CoCk kp ,50
ov vC .koCk kV Ap ok ClWv Do Owv kCl D
] ,kߡ lCh o߮C A C ,kߡ pz [] DF PvC [] 50
[] W PvC [Ap] lD [] ll D C [.lW Ap
: PvC Ap ov 114 lk D [] oCk CoDJ ov k p ok D
57 Ap ok [Ap] PC C DF lõ C .(19*6 =114 =57+57)
VN [lW] CܷF [] ov ok Ap .lz pNe PvC lz oCpN GNp
EDwd) D lWFC pd o qC kl oCl [lW] Fp ,PvC lz
. 57 = (40) + U(3) + (10) + k(4) :kߡ(V
A 45 CoCk 50 ov .42 + 53 = 95 = 19*5 ,PvC A 53 CoCk 42 ov
ok D [] kpz DF .PvC 42 ov ok W D , 50 + 45 = 95 ,PvC
: kߡ W lOw [19] oDz CoCk Ap MDA
:PvC lz Oz pq ok [] F Fp MDԬC h .19*4 D 76

.19*3 ,PvC GNp 57 (50 ov) [] ov ok [] oCpN kClN .1
oCpN Dw kClN F Dk (42) [] oCkCoDJ pk ov ok [] pd .2
.GNp 57 ,PvC lz
DF PwDw 114 kߡ [] oCkCoDJ ov k ok [] oCpN W .3
.kߡ Fp [] oCkCoDJ .Ap Dov kClN
.PvC lz oCpN GNp 57 Ap ok [Ap] .4
Dov qC p ok [] pd oCpN kClN F [lW] CܷF Ap VN .5
.PvC 57 [lW] kl oCl .kߡ Fp oCk CoDJ
.19*5 D ,95 kߡ 53+42 ,PvC A 53 CoCk 42 ov .6
.19*5 ,95 kߡ 45+50 ,PvC A 45 CoCk 50 ov .7
.19*4 D 76 kߡ Ap pvCpv ok [19] oDz MDA ok D[] kClN .8

lz lD ,DS CpF .lz oCllJ Ap Do DC qC DD WOok
13 Ap ok PvC lA 50:13 A ok ,llz pD F kp
;26:160 ;22:43 ;21:74 ;11:70 ,74 ,89 ;7:80 PvC lz oCpN GNp
oDzC [] CܷF DA F DV .54:33 ;50:13 ;38:13 ;29:28 ;27:54,56
CܷF DA F DV ,50 [] oCkCoDJ ov ok DSOvC rWF ,PvC lz
lz kDOvC [] oCk[] pC PvC fC .PvC lz oDzC [ChC]
.Pp F qC F llJ C ,58 l 50 ov ok [] pd yoDz ,kF
Owv C ,pd DN pN PvC o߬ Do Ϯ Pk Pe
A ok PvC F oDzC FCo ok pk DS .kpG F qC F Co
Dw EԬ ~Dw Dp ,p pz C HW Ok ![F] CܷF 3:96
ok DC ,PvC lz Ok Pvok 48:24 A Ap ok () ZpC .PvC kF
ߡ VO .PvC lz kpF oDF [E] pd ,[] pd DWF 3:96 A
lz Ok fe 3:96 A ok [] pC ,kߡ pz [] CoDJ DF 3 ov
!C DeGv .kp ClJ MpD Ap Do l DF [] pd yoDz ,kF

()

C vC ,68 ,PvC lA ov ok ;PvC pF kh ok CoDJ C
[] k ,CpFDF [] PvC lz Ok pd v DF ϤC iw ok pd
,PvC GNp 133 [] oCk CoDJ ov ok pd C yoDz .kߡ kpz
Co Dh MClD PC C PvC Ap CoDJ phA [] .19*7 D
(2:1 qC . . .C) Ap CoDJ C qC MDA kClN ,DS CpF .koA kVF
(C) [Clh] .19*277 D ,5263 kߡ (68:1 qC .) CoDJ phA DN
.PvC lz oCpN CoDJ phA CoDJ C F ok GNp (19*139) 2641
WO ok ,PvC 2698 Ap DN ok [Clh] oCpN W DV A qC
[] CoDJ ,p qC 2:1 ov qC [. . .C] DCoDJ qC UoDh ok A oCpN
[] k DF lDF [] CoDJ .19*3 D ,57 kߡ ,pk p qC 68:1 ov qC
.lzDF

()

pd oCpN W ,38 ,9 ,7 ,PvC lA ov v ClOFC ok CoDJ C
,7:69 ok PvC VN FD .19*8 ,152 kߡ ov v C ok []
PvC DGOzC oDwF pN C [.u] DWF PvC lz Oz [] DF [wF]
,PzDN iw ,kV Ap pNl F D DF .kpG F qC Co Ap l
.[u] DF ܷ ,PvC lz Oz fe Ok DF [wF] lz Ϸ

DGOzC Ok p qC CpC ok lz IDZ DAp PvC pnN F q)
qC Co Clh EDO ,Ap ok Do rW PvC z C F .lOw
(.l DJ DkpGOvk

ioDN O

1974 Dv Cs ok ,PvC Ap pO Ep [19] kl C
13 Dv ok Ap .pW 1393 Dv Wem DF lz kD Pp Pd
d joDN qC DDv kClN vp WO C F .lz d MpW qC G
.19*74 D 1393+13=1406 kߡ ,Ap rW d joDN DN ,Ap
.lz oDzA 1974 Dv Cs ok Ap rW ,lz oDzC DF ok o߮D
.kp zJ ١Z CO lzoh 1974 p 19*74 Dv F DGNoC qC
ok [19] kl z VO D PvC VN FD ߥiF ~Dw C
.PvC lA 74 ov

(x) .u .

GNp 237 ov C ok [] pd .lClA 36 ov ClOFC ok pd k C
kߡ pd C k p W .GNp 48 [u] pd ,PvC lz oCpN
Oz Moߤ k F Ap ok [] pd PvC VN FD .19*15 D ,285
Pw i [] .iD D i pk i ;PvC lz
Eh DS .l kDWC OhC lOw w Fp DFq F Dw CpF
Cok oDFk [] pd .PvC lA 12:36 ok oDFk PvC [oC]
i [] k PvC (Z D v) iD [] C ,PvC lA
rCPG llJ C .koCl Co i D[] qC a 36 ov .(orF)
.F Co CllJ Z 36 ov lD ߬ ov ok ط ,PvC
MClN) [rW pF p :Ap] DF ,h pOk qC pk EDO ok
.lClz i oDOv DF 36 ov ok D[u] D[] ,(1982 Dv ,vC

(d) . .c

W .46 DN 40 ov ;kߡ pz [] [c] pd DF Ap ok ov P
.19*113 D ,2147 kߡ . .c oCkCoDJ ov P C ok pd C oCpN
oCkCoDJ ov P C qC p ok [] D [c] pd DN pN DOG
.kpG F qC Co rC PG llJ C . .c

(w) . .u .

ok pd C oCpN W ll ǡN Co 42 ov qC 2 A DCoDJ C
,GNp 54 [u] pd GNp 98 [] pd .19*11 D ,209 kߡ ov C
.PvC lz oCpN GNp 57 [] pd

(C) . . .C

F ,lOw Fp DFq ok pd pNkDOvC ko [] [,] [,C] pd
C .[] lF [,] xKv [,C] C G Ap DCoDJ ok GNpN
C oCpN W 32 ,31 ,30 ,29 ,3 ,2 l qDA Co ov z pd
,(19*521) 9899} PvC 19 qC Fp ov z C qC p ok pd v
(19*30) 570,(19*43) 817,(19*66) 1254,(19*88) 1672,(19*298) 5662
(19*1046) 19874 kߡ ov z ok DA oCpN W ,CpFDF .{HNpOF
.kpG F qC Co llJ C pd C qC p pN

(pC) .o . .C

oCpN W .lߡ PD 15 ,14 ,12 ,11 ,10 Dov ok DCoDJ C
2375 ,(19*131) 2489 ,(19*131) 2489 kߡ Dov C ok pd C
.(19*48) 912 ,(19*63) 1197,(19*125)

(pC) .o . . .C

C oCpN W ,13 oDz ov lClA ov ClOFC ok pd C
,PvC lz oCpN GNp 605 [C] pd .19*78 D ,1482 kߡ pd oDZ
.GNp 137 [o] pd ,GNp 260 [] pd GNp 480 [] pd

(C) . . . .C

C ok [C] pd ,7 ov ,PvC lz qDA DCoDJ C DF ov DN
1164 [] pd ,GNp 1530 [] pd ,PvC lz oCpN GNp 2529 ov
C ok pd oDZ C oCpN W ,CpFDF .GNp 97 [] pd ,GNp
.2529+1530+1164+97=5320=19*280 : kߡ ov
D Co [] pd DNC Dh DGNoC PvC DWC ok VN FD O
TDF 7 ov ok [] pd .PvC lA 38 19 ov ok CoDJ C .ll
W C ,lzDF Pw FD 19 kl pF kz ФDd W DN kߡ
19 kl pF Pw FD W DN kߡ TDF 38 19 Dov DF a
qC [. . .@ .] Ap DCoDJ DF [] Ap CoDJ ,ԷF .lk ǡN
FD 19 kl pF l ФDd W DN l ClJ DGNoC 19 ov
laJ F Pw [] CoDJ Oi þ DNC DGNoC C .lzDF Pw
.l Ap Do l

() . . . .@ .

ov ok PvC pd XJ CoCk PvC DCoDJ W pN߬ C
,PvC lz oCpN GNp 137 ,19 ov ok [] pd .19 ov ,PvC lA ov
26 [] ,GNp 117 [] pd ,GNp 343 [] pd ,GNp 175 [@] pd
: kߡ pd XJ C oCpN W ,CpFDF .GNp
.137+175+343+117+26=798=19*42

(w). .u . -- (x) .u . -- ().@ . -- .@

ФDd W DN kqDw Fp F Co Ap DCoDJ C ClaJ DGNoC
lA 20 19 Dov ok [@] CoDJ .PvC Pw FD 19 kl pF l
ov ClOFC ok [.u .] CoDJ .PvC lA 20 ov ok [.@ .] CoDJ .PvC
28 26 Dov ClOFC ok [. .u .] CoDJ Dd ok ,PvC lA 27
ok pNlaJ pN߬ DCoDJ kz VN lDF DWC ok .PvC lA
Dov A ok kDp , oDwF NCrW lߡ PD Dov
19 ov ok pDF p vN w lN ,DS CpF .PvC lz kCk cpz
.kߡ qDA ....@. ,DCoDJ pN߬ DF PvC lA
Dov ClOFC ok [. .u .] [,.u .] [,.@ .] [,.@] ХO DCoDJ
Dv DF FCo ok kDp D w v DD PvC lA
PDd CpF pOe lCz aC Clh .ll fN Co DV
qC Ap l PFDR Ap Do rW) .l Cp pN MCrW
DC CoCk koA FDO lCO xa Cpq ,PvC lA Clh p
DN Ap l PFDR rW C .Do DC CoCk ,lzDF FkC
DN ,lzDF lDF Ap ,G DN .Dk DN F PvC Clh koi Pvk DJ
(.PvC Clh lz PFDR Ap qC pJ pF MDW PCl Co


MDDGOzC ,Dv 1400 ߬ ok DAp Fp O w Pvk pDiF :pnN)
DO pSC Cn ,PvC lz A koC kD q oDwF DwC MDpeN C
F Fp ok [Pp] S .PvC DGOzC CpC IDZ DAp Fp
[MDp] Moߤ F CpC IDZ DAp ok Dd ok ,kߡ Oz z
kDq oDwF CpC IDZ DAp ok MDDGOzC C qC .PvC lz Oz
PvC D pd DN lz kDq l d o߮D .PvC
(.kpGF F qC Co Ap ok Clh Do 첵 rW

? PwZ [kl oCl]

kV vDܡ qpC kClC ,J p 14 ,lz d Ap D
pd qC kDOvC A l pJ ص zo qC Dq A ok .lOzCl@
pdp CpF lz N kl .kF kClC CܷF D ,CoA ,pG ,Fp
.PvC pd A (V EDwd D ,lWFC EDwd) [kl oCl]

(lWFC pd) kl oCl lV
-
c
-
q
@
-
k
U
E
C
pd
50
40
30
20
-
10
9
8
-
7
6
5
-
4
3
2
1
kl oCl
-
m
g
Q
-
M
y
o
-
u
pd
1000
900
800
-
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90
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60
kloCl


DlF qC p F Co kh Pdo ,DFp lܡiF Clh DWA qC)
F 19 Do l DJ pF Ap Do rC Pz rW ,koDF lCiF
1974 Dv ok ,Clh DS vo ,h kDzo vN Ϯ okD Clh Pdo
DiF WCok ,(33:7 ,3:81) Ap ok Clh DS vo lA .lz d
.PvC lz ˡJ (24:27) [DO] ,(17:22-36) [D] ,(3:1-3) []
Dw pk ,h pOk vF rC Pz Do MCrW a
l PFDR PvC lz oDzA ,kF lz D Pdo DA F Clh v qC
,PvC lA Ap MDA ok o߮D .kF Clh DS vo h kDzo
: qC lNoDG ,Clh vo MDi

d PvChok l ,Clh DN OvpJ XpN ,Clh v qC D OzCk
kp lq ,Clqp pw OzCk ,l C d C F ,PvC kp qC
kp pk lD koh Cn ,oCqDF Z ok ykp kp Dok
kDzo pk vo lD ,PvC kF kp xV qC (25:7,20)
.kF MDi A CoCk h kDzo pOk ....p kp DGOzC


lF .kCk Ch Dz F Pd EDO ] P ,Pp l CpGػJ qC Clh
loA DC C F .lA lCh kV DFDO lN CpF vo A qC
pJ DS C qC ,lOw ľC C DF DA] ,P C [.l PDd Co C
MkDz Dz xJ] ,P C [.Ow ľC D] ,lO DA [?kp lCh
(3:81) [.Ow lDz Dz DF ,lCkCk

EDO b ok ll D Co pF llJ Ap Do 첵 rW
oCk FDO joDN ok oDF C CpF C .kߡ PD pF Pvk Oz
qC lz DJ Ap] ,[koCk kV Clh] l PFDR ϵ D MDGRC DF
[.PvC lA ,cCp Clh v qC DkpGOvk MDpeN

: Ci 31 A (DpC) D EDO ,25 ov ok)


.l oCp CoDD D qC Dzk pGػJ p ϵpF D a]
[.EDFoC ,PvC D l PCl CܷF MoDkopJ

: Ci Z 55 DN 52 MDA qC Xd ,22 ov ok


Dz oCnF C lF ,pGػJ ,kDOvp vo N qC G D]
kCk DWC Dz Co aA Clh xKv .lzDF OzCk PDhk DOvCh ok
C .pNd ,PvC DA Clh .l D Co NDA Clh .l Sh ,PvC
loCk z DG ok Dw CpF DeOC CܷF Co Dz d aC
DDi DF lDF CoDOv .PvC lz Piv DG Dw ,l l oCp
MoDkopJ p qC Co Pd ,PvC lz D Ck DA F Dw .lDF
G Co A DDO DG ,loA DC A F xKv ,ll iN
pD Dw .l PCl PvCo Co F Co D Clh ,Dw .kp lCh
DN D ,lA DA pF DD PDv C DN ll CkC kh z F ,lߡ
[.lA DA pF Piv qo ECn C

PDhk qDVC Dz ,l d DF MDA ok o߮D ,WO ok
pGػJ phA le Pdo qC lF .koCk Co vo pGػJ p DOvCh ok
lkp DC Ap F A k Dl peN ,orF Clh PvCiF ,Clh
oDC ,lkp зV Co [Pv] ,[Tld] DFDO orF Clh Ap oDok
pG Clh Ap qpC DDw o߮D !lzDG D pG Clh Ap
DDF ,Dz V ,DwC Pvk Oz EDO k qC OzCn oD Co
.l pJ (kCk DWC le aA) Pv (P le aA) Tld
: l DDw ECpC F EDh ,le ,47 ov qC 38 A ok Clh


,kCk lCh oCp Dz DV Co pk kp (Clh) C ,lCkpF o pC]
[!kF lCi Dz lD DA

Ap Do l rC Pz rW orF Clh PvCiF Dv 1400 qC xJ
DS vo .lz ,Clh DS vo ,h kDzo vCF 19 kl DJ pF
qC Co (vC) wN k ,orF Clh PvCiF ,Ap Do rW ,Clh
lCkpqDF kh C PDeF lkp feN DJ Dz ,DwC MDpeN
G iN FpWN ,lkp pm DF ok NDA kVDF Dv~DO DC
,kDzo kp ,DlzwN qC Cl pk oDF ,kF lz DDw pDGp
pok Fp DFq F pF CpF CpA pG oDkopJ Clh Ap qC pJ DWF
,l DF) wC DFq F h pOk vN lz VpN Ap ,PvC Op
pG Clh Ap DN oDok k pk G Co (ب 38 ,Dwpq
kDzo aA = Tld) lz G l DoC PvD DoC kCk oCp
ok pk k G Co DS vo (kCk DWC kDzo aA = Pv ,P
Ap oDC ,lCkCk oCp ,Ap ܷ ,pG Clh k G DN oD
!lzDG D pG Clh

oCkCoDJ Dov pk Do Ch

ok (15:87 PV P) ,Fp DGC pd qC ,Fp pd koDZ
kl oCl kp DC DF .loCk Ppz DCoDJ Oi W 14 ǡN
lߡ qDA Ap DCoDJ DF Dov kClN F ,pd C qC p
.19*19*2 D ,722 kߡ lA PvlF W ,(29)

(C) [Clh] ,Dh MD Do l

W .19*142 ,PvC lz oCpN GNp 2698 Ap ok [Clh] (C)
qC Fp 118123 kߡ ,PvC lA [Clh] DA ok NDA oDz
) CoDJ phA DN (2:1 . . .C) Ap CoDJ C qC .(19*6217) D PvC 19
GNp 57 [Clh] .19*139 D ,PvC lz oCpN [Clh] 2641 ,(68:1
NDA Dov oDz kp V DF .PvC lA DCoDJ UoDh Pw ok
.19*128 D ,2432 kߡ W ,PvC lA DA ok [Clh] GNp 57 C
FD NDA DF Co ov p oDz D pC .PvC lA ov 85 ok [Clh]
A o߬ , V DF ,PvC lA [Clh] oCpN phA C
.19*430 D 8170 kߡ V ,lA EDweF phA C
Fp F [] .Pw [Clh ] þ PvC C Ap DJ pN
p F DC qC GNp 6 .PvC lz oCpN Ap ok GNp 25 [ldC] kߡ
oDzC A pk oCpN 19 .(p ,ok ,Cn@ F) koCk oDzC Clh qC
CCp PC .kߡ PD Ap MD Pvp ok MDԬC C .koCk Clh F
pO Ep kߡ i C qC Ap ϤC DJ CܷF [ldC]
.PvC [ldC] kl oCl ,19 ,Ap

!19 CpZ

kl .PwCk PvC kp h Zp o pF D Dh DC CO Co 19 kl
MoDG C D PvC HDV oDwF .PvC Dh Do Ch CoCk [19]
MD쿡 [.lpA Co DV A DF Clh PvC DFq Do] : P Co yo
Ph o pF PvC oDkopJ DC 19 kl koCk A pF Pk CCp ϵ
DC lD ,PvC oCllJ DV pvCpv ok C DC C .Dh D
:DS CpF .DDoD o pF PvC vDJ D tA
.PvC C kl 19 (1)
ok Co Clh P oDC PvC (9) kl phA (1) kl C Dz {2}
[.phA C] lk D 57:3
.lߡ Oz z F Dk DDFq ok 9 1 kClC {3}
C W 19 kl ,DS CpF .PvC CCp Do Ch CoCk 19 {4}
ߡ VO Dd .PvC 10 9 CN k F OhC ,PvC 10 9 CN
PvC lz lDW PC C ok 19 oDz DF Clh DV oCn l
,Fp ,pG ,CoA DvA DFDO DDFq ok [ldC] kl oCl
.PvC 19
lp oCp h o pF oDF Dv 19 p q ,D ,lzoh {5}
.(l VCp DCkV oDCpCk ok [N] Pw F)
F 19*4 D Dv 76 p ,DvA 첵 llJ C ,D oCkDGk oDOv {6}
Ap Do rW DN le Dq qC ,lA wz ߲ MD
.kCk DWC wz ߲ DF Co kh MD kq
DwC lF PvC oDzA ФC C ok Dz o pF oDkopJ p {7}
Oi v 19 qC D lF a .PvC CiOvC 19*11 D 209 CoCk
.PvC lz ǡN
pSC ok xolN CpF ,plv .FCk .N ,pRC vDz 鿮 EDO {8}
IDZ qC 88 e ok .kߡ kDOvC DpA leO MC zrJ uoCl
D CpF Dd Dq Ml Dص] : Ci Z A WJ
lF O 38 D qo 266 pNk o߮F D ,lD qC lF O 40 D qo 280
.lOw Pw FD 19 pF k p 38 266 kClC [.PvC oCn iN qC
:kߡ wC pd HNpN o qC C-C-k CpWq Dv {9}
!CDeGv .19 = 1 C + 14 C + 4 k
PvC vo A D ,kqDw NpJ l ykp lF ok v {10}
.PvC lz ǡN Pw 19 qC PvC k CoCk
pN PvC lz oDzA k 1900 DDv ok 첵 pW C {11}
.C DC .PvC kr oDwF Clh qpJ .lzDG phC v oCr pGh

[Ap]

F 10:15 ok DA qC PvC lz oCpN GNp 58 Ap ok [Ap]
,CpFDF .kz nd lDF Dh oCpN C xJ .l oDzC [pk Ap]
.19*3 D PvC GNp 57 Ap ok [Ap C] oCpN

e CDJ

pd 19 Dz ,CwF p [DFp lܡiF ,Clh vC F] Ap A C
lz oCpN NDk kClN F Ap ok p A lk ǡN CrVC .PvC

.koCk 19 qC Fp

GNp 19
[vC]
(19*142) GNp 2698
[C]
(19*3) GNp 57
(lܡiF) [dpC]
(19*6) GNp 114
(DFp) [dpC]

(MkDz) ldC Clh

19 Ap ok l oDzC Clh F [ldC] ,lz oDzC G o߮D
oDz W ,PvC GNp 5 Clh [DN] F oDzC .PvC lz oCpN GNp
.19*19 D ,361 kߡ PvC lA DA ok oCpN XJ C NDA Dov
Clh ,Clh qC p) [C C C ] PvC lA 3:18 ok [Clh oOvk C]
ok oCpN C .PvC lA ov 19 ok MoDG pO C .(Pw pk
D MDA kClN DDF Dov oDz W .73:9 ok phA PvC 2:163
D ,316502 kߡ MDA C oDz W DDF oCpN phA DN C
ok C C C Cov 19 oDz kp DC DF ,a .19*16658
lz oCpN DA ok V C NDA oDz DDF ,PvC lz oCpN DA
.19*112 D ,2128 kߡ V ,(29) oCpN klN W DDF ,PvC

[qD] DGNoC DDk

Dov oDz D O ,PvC lz oCpN GNp 67 Ap ok [Ԥ]
.19*246 D ,4674 kߡ W V DF Co oCpN 67 C MDA

qo

5:89,95 ;4:92 ;2:183 ,184 ,185 ,187 ,196 MDA ok Op qo oOvk
.19*73 D ,1387 kߡ kClC C W .PvC lA 58:4 ;33:35 ,35
C pF ,PvC lz oCpN GNp k qo 33:35 A ok PvC VN FD
. Dq CpF pk , Ckp

Xd MDq

MDq ,PvC HVC Dw Dq Ckp pF DF MCoOvk Ddok
Do llJ C .PvC HVC loCk Co A PDOvC Dw CpF þ Xd
MDA ok MDq .koCk DGNoC Xd MDq F l N Co GDV
;18:81 ;9:5,11,18,71 ;7:156 ;5:12,55 ;4:77,162 ;2:43,83,110,177,277
;31:4 ;30:39 ;27:3 ;24:37 ,56 ;23:4 ;22:41 ,78 ;21:73 ;19:13 ,31 ,55
kߡ kClC C W .PvC lA 98:5 ;73:20 ;58:13 ;41:7 ;33:33
.koCk DC oDz ,Pw Pw FD 19 pF Dk W C ,2395
kClC C W .PvC lA 22:27 ;9:3 ;2:189 ,196 ,197 MDA ok Xd
oDz ;Pw Pw FD 19 pF Dk W C 645 kߡ
.2395+645=3040=19*160 kߡ , DF ,Xd MDq ,CpFDF .koCk

Ap Do DOhDv

F ,PvC Do DC CoCk DN Ap pd ,MD ,MDA ,Dov
,PvC Do DϮ PvC OD HNpN DwC CoD DOhDv DF
DWA qC .koCl DOhDv Z HNpN DF DGNoC b A FkC MDOe
Ap ok kClC kpoDOC ,PvC e Do Ap DOhDv
ok Dh kl 30 kClN .lzDF OzCk PFD Ap 19-DJ DF lDF ,lClA
Pw FD 19 kl pF 162146 kߡ kClC C W ,PvC lA Ap
lClz oCpN GNp þ Ap ok kClC .(162146= 19*8534) PvC
,50000 ,5000 ,3000 ,2000 ,300 ,99 ,80 ,60 ,50 ,20 ,19 ,11 : qC lNoDG
oCpN GNp 285 ,klW oCpN DF Ap ok lz oCpN kClC .100000
.19*15 ;PvC Pw FD 19 pF kl C ,lClz

MDA Dov oDz

.PvC lz PDd D Ap MDA Dov oCn oDz Owv qC
MDA oDz DDF , V DF Co Dov oDz D D
kߡ Ap V ,MDA oDz W DDF ,ov p ok
.19*19*959 D ,346199

Pvk F 1990 Dv Cs 31 joDN ok h kDzo pOk ,Clh DS vo
.lvo MkDz F ,Clh rW Clh vo Dzk ,Clh Dzk
Pz C ,pFPF F h kDzo ,Clh vo Pdo qC G qo lZ
pq ok .kp PwJ N Co CF leO Dlz wN DD v
.lD d Co h pOk vF lz pO DD phA


: lzDF OzCk kDF Cp Dpd

lA lCh CpD pv pF aA PwC

: PvC lz ˡJ 44:9-15 ok o߮D
.kp lCh PFDC DoDh ok D F orF DvA v
.lCqw 100 Dz DN Co lq MCkV PFDC WO
,Clh rW Clh ϤC Dzk ,Pp lCh pFok Co Ep Dk Cp
.(9:97 ,3:81 ,33:7) Clh DS vo
CpF Co lzoh ,Pp lCh DWC 44:10-15 MDA ok Ap ˡJ
.kp lCh oDN D lZ
CrOvC piw Co ˡJ C ECpC 17:92 A OvJ F WOok
.l
ˡJ C oCk vDwdC DC ; Cl ?ll go P Z
.lCl CpA fe Dq Clh þ .Pp lCh DWC 1990 Dv qC G


: l DO Clh aA PwC

D lzDF qo HC CpFDF .DOCF ,lOw z qC pJ DA Dw
PvC FCn C ;Pp lCh pFok Co kp .koA oDzA kk DvA
Dd [.Ow D qC D ;oCkpF D qC Co ECn C ,D oDkopJ] .Dkok
lA DA pF l oDzA vo !loA kDF DA PvC lz pk oDwF
w DC ,kp eN oDwF] ,lO ,llCkp o C qC DA DC .kF
krF Dz ;PzCk ChpF Nl CpF Co ECn D [!l pJ DV qC
(44:1509) .lkpqDF

vo ,yCl leO vo HnN WO oDFok D DO Dh aC
PvC lz O D F Clh kh vCF .kqDv DA Co D ,Clh DS
Pp lCh pFok Co q p kp 첵 kk lA lCh qo
q p F DvA v pC lCl DvDz oDOv ,ClءCk
v ,q p ,1989 Dv ok .kCk lCh go FCn Z ,l PFDC
A .kp FpWN ,Pzn q qC kr oDwF ϤD qC Co orF DvA
qA Ap ok A lZ qC a . CpD F kF Clh oDhC
DS vo kDOvp qC lF ϤDF Pز C DF C lz l~DN ECn
.(17:15) kp DWC Clh
Clh DS vo ,44:13 ok lz oDzC vo koCk kV CCp MDGRC
: PvC
Co 57 kl (13) A oDz DC DF (44) ov oDz kp DC DF -1
vo vCF 19 DJ pF Do rW .19*3 kߡ oA PvlF
.lz oDzA Clh DS
44:13 A DN Ap ClOFC qC MDA oDz DDF Dov oDz W -2
.19*19*15 D 5415 kߡ
oCpN kClN D F Dk [pm] (44:13) A D ok -3
VN Co 19 Ap rW uDvC ,PvC lA (74:31) A ok PvC lz
.ll Fo Clh DS vo DF Co kk ,e oDwF DGNoC C .l
w DC ,kp eN oDwF] CܷF Dzk vCF vo N -4
[l pJ DV qC
.PvC lz O ,h kDzo F oDzC ok qpC CpD vCF G (44:14)

Ap Do D rW

.lOw Clh p qC DA ,l Ap DVpN kpF Co kh
l ClJ MDW kpF C qC DN l D Co Clh Fp Ap

EN ok Dl

.lk oD Co DWC D MDq oDFok h lz yCp MDԬC D CpF

.lk oD Co DWC D Fp Ap Do D DD EDO D CpF
9 ov oDFok v DA l
.lk oD Co DWC D v DA l qC Ozo lCh CpF

?PvC Pw FD 19 kl F Fp Ap CpZ
?PvC Ap DCoDJ CoCk Fp Ap ov 29 CpZ
?PwZ Fp Ap ok PV 7 qC o߲

llVDl

-1--2--3 h kDzo pOk Pdo qC G V qD phA

"Clh OD Co ok" Dl pv

"Clh OD Co ok"

--- -4- --3--2-2 -1"Ap"

-4 -3 -2 -1"k"

Fp Ap qC llV CD

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